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Title: Developing discipline-based ESL learning materials for foreign students in Baguio City
Authors: Florentino, Lota O.
Keywords: English as a second language
Discipline- based
Short stories
Critical reading
Interpretation of intonation patterns
Word order
Comparison and contrast
Explanation and exemplification
Issue Date: 
Abstract: ABSTRACT 1. Title: Developing Discipline-Based ESL learning Materials for Foreign Students in Baguio City Total No. of Pages: 192 Text No. of Pages: 177 2. Author: FLORENTINO, LOTA ORTIZ 3. Type of Document: Masteral Thesis 4. Type of Publication: Unpublished 5. Accrediting Institution: Saint Louis University (Private) Bonifacio Street, Baguio City CHED – CAR 6. Key Words: English as a second language, Discipline- Based, Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, Literature, Short Stories, Vocabulary, Inference, Critical Reading, Interpretation of Intonation Patterns, Word Order, Comprehension, Comparison and Contrast, Explanation and Exemplification. 7. Abstract 7.1 Summary As the title “Developing Discipline-Based ESL Learning Materials for Foreign Students in Baguio City” suggests, this study dwelt on the development of materials for foreign ESL students here in Baguio City to enhance not only their communicative skills but also their critical and analytic thinking skill to enable them to be academically successful in subject-area classrooms where English is a medium of learning. Specifically, it raised and answered the following question: 1) what fields of discipline do foreign ESL learners prefer to be integrated in their learning materials? 2) Are there significant correlations in the preferences of fields of discipline the students want to integrate in their learning materials considering a) Nationality, b) Age, and c) Field of Specialization. 3) What are the identified learners’ ESL needs along the four skill areas based on their level of English proficiency? 4) What learning materials can be developed to address the needs of ESL learners? The study was descriptive in nature. To determine the field of discipline preference of the respondents, a questionnaire was floated. Weighted mean was used to rank the choice. A qualitative description was provided to evaluate the rank. To determine the significant correlations in the choice according to age and field of specialization groups, Spearman rank correlation and Kendall’s coefficient of concordance were used, respectively. To determine the weaknesses of the respondents along the four learning domains, an assessment test was administered by the researcher. The learning skills tested were along reading, writing, listening and language usage/speaking. Mode was used to determine the need and for ranking purposes except for speaking. The interview method was used and the ability was assessed through an observation rubric. A discipline-based learning material was developed to aid these learners to be academically successful without sacrificing the need to further improve their conversational skill. The materials preparation model of Hutchinson and Waters was adapted wherein content was integrated in the materials. The lesson plan sequence of Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach was adapted for the organization of the tasks. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol of the Specially Designed Academic English Instruction was adapted to evaluate the appropriateness of the material. BICS, CALP, EAP and Krashen’s Theory of Language Acquisition were also considered in the preparation of the materials. The identified needs were the basis of tasks development. 7.2 Findings. The salient findings of the study are the following: 1) In reading, vocabulary, inference and critical reading were found to be the most difficult tasks by the student respondents. Locating details followed next. 2) In writing, comparison and contrast, and explanation and exemplification emerged as the most difficult learning area given in the assessment test. Both yielded an evaluation of very much needed. Following are argumentation and persuasion, and cause and effect (much needed). 3) In listening, the student respondents found interpretation of intonation patters in a conversation difficult with a very much need evaluation. Next were obtaining gist of what is being said and following directions in a conversation with an evaluation of much needed. 4) In language usage, discourse, word order and vocabulary and comprehension were proven to be the most difficult among he listed learning areas (very much needed). Unity and coherence came close with a much needed evaluation. In the oral speaking tasks, it was found out that the student respondents generally did not yet exhibit abilities in spoken discourse. Most of them displayed halting speech with minimal elaboration of ideas. They also could not sustain the conversation. 7.3 Conclusion The following are the conclusions drawn from the results of this study: 1) Literature was the most preferred field of discipline. 2) Age and field specialization profile of the student respondents were found to be appropriate vis a vis the material developed as, generally, there is a correlation of their field of discipline preferences considering the aforementioned variables. 3) Priority needs to be addressed in the four skills are: a. Vocabulary, inference, critical reading and locating details for reading. b. Comparison and contrast, explanation and exemplification, argumentation and persuasion, and cause and effect for writing. c. Interpretation of intonation patters (conversation), obtaining gist of what is being said and following directions (conversation) for listening. d. Discourse, word order, vocabulary and comprehension, and unity and coherence for language usage (written). Content of message, comprehensibility of message, quality of interaction, fluency, vocabulary and language control for speaking (oral). 4) The learning material that could address the weaknesses of the students should be discipline based to make them more communicative and proficient in the English Language. 7.4 Recommendation In the light of the general findings and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations are made: 1) Literature provides an ideal and creative way of integrating the development of the four linguistic skills. It stirs the imagination of the learners. It therefore recommended that Literature, with short story as the topic, is integrated in the materials teachers use in English teaching. Moreover, the choice of literature should be objective to address effectively all concepts to be learned in each unit. 2) As shown in the survey, Literature is preferred regardless of age and course group. It is recommended that literature be used as a springboard in teaching ESL students particularly belonging in the indicated clusters. 3) The importance, individually and collectively, of the four (4) language domains should be emphasized. Reasoned discourse should always be encouraged and exercised to expose the students to his type of undertaking. Vocabulary build-up, both academic and conversational, should also be encouraged and made part of the learning exercises. Thinking beyond every task should be taught and his is done through the teaching of learning strategies. 4) Content should always be made as a springboard towards language learning. An academic approach should be used in improving the academic needs of the students without sacrificing their communicative necessities. Learning strategies should be included in the development of the tasks. The improvement of the identified learners’ needs should be the focus of every task developed.
Description: Thesis(M.A.:Language education)--Saint Louis University,BaguioCity,2007.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/237
Appears in Collections:School of Teacher Education

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