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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/386

Title: Pagkakaibigan: Its Formation and Maintenance
Authors: Yogawin, Jonathan Mediran
Keywords: Friendship Formation Factors
Friendship Maintenance Strategies
Gender Friendship
Opposite Gender Friendship
Conflict Resolution Strategies
Maintenance Strategies
Residential Proximity
Study Area Proximity
Network Proximity
Physical Attractiveness
Social Skills
Probability of Future Interaction
Frequency of Exposure
Outcome Dependency
Reciprocity of Liking
Time Spent Together
Passive and Indirect Strategy
Distributive Strategy
Integrative Strategy
Keeping Up the Level of Rewards
Avoiding Conflict
Issue Date: May-2003
Abstract: 7.1 Summary. A central aspect of human existence is the need to belong and with another person. Interpersonal relations, particularly and especially close relationships, have been found to be significant to the physical and psychological well being of an individual. One very important relationship is that of friendship, which may be considered as a universal feature of the human condition. It has been said that friendships form a core aspect of people’s lives. It is in this context that this study has been undertaken. Based on the assumptions that people can report experiences of friendship and that one may relate with another through same-gender and opposite-gender friendships, the study endeavored to determine the various factors that lead to friendship formation and the different strategies employed to maintain friendship. These strategies were investigated in terms of how persons resolve conflict and explicitly endeavor to sustain their friendships. The influence of being either male or female in same opposite-gender friendship was taken into consideration. This descriptive study was conducted in Saint Louis University, Baguio City in the first semester second semester of school year 2002-2003. Two hundred ninety-four (294) fourth year and fifth year students, ranging from 18-30 years of age, from the following undergraduate. colleges; namely, the College of Education (COE), the College of Human (CHS), the College of Natural Sciences (CNS), the College of Engineering and Architecture (CEA), the College of Accountancy and Commerce (CAC), the College of Information and Computing Sciences (CICS), and the College of Nursing (CN) were employed to answer a six 6) — point scale Likert Type questionnaire specifically constructed for the study. Focused Group Discussions (FGD’s) and a preliminary questionnaire were used to ascertain the contents of the final questionnaire which yielded the environmental, individual, situational and dyadic friendship formation factors; the integrative, passive/indirect and distributive conflict resolution strategies; and the various explicit maintenance strategies employed by the respondents in their same and opposite gender friendships. Using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version Ten (SPSS v.10), mean scores were computed and subjected to a One- Way Within-Subjects (Repeated Measures) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for all the problems of the study. When significance was established, the Paired Samples T-Test was performed to indicate direction of the differences. To determine the magnitude of the differences, eta squared values were also computed through Microsoft Excel. For the third problem of the study, however, an Independent samples T-Test was also used to compare males and females in each of the factors of same and opposite gender friendship formation and each of the strategies of same and opposite-gender friendship maintenance. 7.2 Summary of Findings and Conclusions. Friendships could be formed due to the presence of several factors. Study Area Proximity was most contributory to friendship formation more than Residential Proximity and Communication Network Proximity, while Competency was found to be the most contributory to friendship formation more than the other individual characteristics of Social Skills, Physical Attractiveness and various areas of Similarity within the study. The situational factors of the Availability and Outcome Dependency are most contributory to friendship formation as compared to Frequency of Exposure and Probability of Future Interaction, while Self- Disclosure was found, to be the primary contributory dyadic factor that leads to friendship formation, more than Time Spent Together and Reciprocity of Liking. Among the four categories of friendship formation factors, Situational factors, more than Environmental, individual and Dyadic factors determine why persons become friends. Once friendships are formed, however, maintaining the relationship has to be dealt with. This may be done through effectively resolving conflict and explicitly expressing various ways of sustaining the relationship. Among the different Conflict Resolution Strategies, the Integrative strategy is utilized the most, in comparison with the use of Passive/Indirect and Distributive strategies of handling conflict. Under the Explicit Maintenance Strategies, it is the Avoidance of Conflict and the Keeping Up of the Level of Rewards, along with Supportiveness that are most employed to maintain friendships, as compared to Self Disclosure and Spending Time Together. Friendships between and among males and females, however, hold certain characteristics. There are significant differences between males and females in some of the formation factors and maintenance strategies of Same Gender and Opposite Gender Friendships. For Same Gender Friendship, the predominant category of friendship formation factors is that of the Situational Factors. Among all specific factors however, Study Area Proximity, Competency, Availability, Outcome Dependency and Self-Disclosure all lead to Same-Gender Friendship formation. Comparing the results of males and females in Same-Gender Friendship, except for Residential Proximity, Communication Network Proximity, and the Similarity of Demographic Characteristics, Activities and Experiences, females regard all the specific formation factors more contributory than males. Same-Gender friends employ Integrative strategy primarily over the Passive/Indirect and Distributive strategy to resolve conflict. Avoiding Conflict, Keeping Up the Level of Rewards and Supportiveness predominate over Self Disclosure and Spending Time Together, as explicit maintenance strategies of Same-Gender friendships Comparing females and males in Same-Gender Friendship, females use the Integrative strategy along with all the explicit maintenance strategies more than males. For Opposite Gender Friendships, the Situational factors and the Dyadic Factors predominantly lead to friendship formation Except for Outcome Dependency, the specific formation factors contributory to Opposite-Gender friendships are similar to those of Same-Gender friendships. Comparing the results of males and females in Opposite Gender Friendships, females consider the contribution of the specific formation factors of Competency, Social Skills, Availability and Outcome Dependency significantly more than males. There are no significant differences between males and females in the other specific Opposite Gender Friendship formation factors. Opposite-Gender friends resolve conflict and explicitly maintain their friendships in the same manner with Same-Gender friends. Comparing female’s and males, certain differences are present in Opposite Gender Friendships. Females use the Passive/Indirect conflict resolution strategy more than males. Furthermore, except for Spending Time Together, females employ all the explicit maintenance strategies more than males. 7.3 Recommendations. Friendship is a universal experience. It therefore would be beneficial to investigate the experience of friendship of other age groups as well as respondents from other educational institutions. Various qualitative procedures may also be adapted to better understand the phenomenon of Filipino friendship and yield information, which could be integrated with findings in Sikolohiyang Pilipino as psychological literature on Friendship. In view of Availability as a predominant friendship formation factor, it could be recommended that more avenues where young people could have a chance to encounter each other, engage in meaningful conversation and develop ones’ abilities or skills, be undertaken by schools. These may take place through different extra-curricular activities such as, sports clinics, recollections, team building activities and various types of competitions. Schools may plan the guidance program to include particular group dynamic exercises where interpersonal skills and intelligence could be developed and properly facilitated by competent individuals. This is in view of self-disclosure as a significant friendship formation factor. Subjects dealing with values formation, social ethics and related areas could be enhanced so as to make available the understanding of more effective ways of resolving conflict and developing healthy friendships. The development of skills or talent and enhancement of communication and social skills by joining activities facilitating such abilities is encouraged to individuals as Competency and Social Skills were the topmost individual factors leading to friendship. Maintaining friendships could very well be facilitated if conflict situations are addressed as soon as possible in a manner which upholds respect, honesty and sincere effort to adjust to each other. Persons are encouraged to objectively observe how they handle conflict in their relationships and do the necessary adjustments to facilitate better communication. The periodic expression of support, either materially or emotionally, would prove beneficial to a friendship. Persons are encouraged to set time for their friendships and consciously try to keep in contact and be of help when in need, Considering the male-female Conflict Resolution Strategies, Gender Sensitivity Training for persons in general could be undertaken. Here, females could be encouraged to use an open and non-confrontational manner when in conflict with another female and males could be made more aware of how females communicate conflict as they are more likely to use indirect ways of resolving conflict with males.
Description: Thesis (M.S. : Psychology). -- Saint Louis University, Baguio City, 2003.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/386
Appears in Collections:School of Humanities

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